At the end of each of school year, all students took content-focused assessments designed by researchers to include topics that had been addressed across the three different schools and teaching approaches algebra at the end of year 1, geometry at the end of year 2, and advanced algebra and geometry at the end of year 3. In addition, the researcher administered open-ended project assessments in each year of the study, with longer, more applied problems that students worked on in groups. By the end of year 1, the Railside students were approaching comparable levels in algebra to students at the other two schools.
In year 4, 41 percent of seniors at Railside were enrolled in calculus, compared with approximately 27 percent in the two other schools. Railside students also scored higher than students at the other two schools on the California Standards test, a curriculum-aligned test, although they did not do as well on the CAT 6, a standardized state test, perhaps because that test requires strong English language skills and cultural knowledge.
In addition, the Railside approach was successful at improving equity. Significant disparities in the mathematics achievement of incoming white, black, and Latino students at Railside disappeared over the course of the study period, although achievement differences between different ethnic groups continued at the other two schools.
These findings begin to illuminate both the process of deeper learning and its role in developing transferable skills and knowledge. Clearly, the innovative approach led to gains in cognitive competencies in mathematics. At the same time, interview data showed that students developed positive dispositions towards mathematics and conscientiousness in addressing mathematics problems—important intrapersonal competencies.
Data from the videotaped project assessments showed that Railside students persisted in working through difficult problems for longer time periods than students from the other two schools. Railside students also gained important interpersonal skills, learning to value group work not only for how it aided their own learning but also for helping others. In interviews, they expressed enjoyment in helping others and did not describe others as smart or dumb, slow or quick.
Although the focus of their conversations was on mathematics, they learned to appreciate the different perspectives, insights, methods, and approaches offered by students from different cultures and circumstances.
The model of the suite of knowledge and skills developed through deeper learning shown in Table above Mayer, includes intrapersonal facets—specifically, productive beliefs about learning—as well as cognitive dimensions. Here, we further explore the intrapersonal dimensions of learning. The intrapersonal domain encompasses a broad range of competencies that reside within an individual and operate across a variety of different life contexts and situations, including learning situations.
We have. Below, we discuss research and theory by investigating how these competencies support learning, including evidence suggesting that they support deeper learning and transfer. We also briefly describe the broader construct of self-regulation and research in child and adolescent development and economics that suggest that competence in self-regulation transfers across a variety of life situations. We also argued that productive beliefs about learning are an essential component of transferable knowledge. Here, we explore further how beliefs and motivation support deeper learning.
The beliefs students hold about learning can significantly affect learning and performance e. For example, many students believe, on the basis of their typical classroom and homework assignments, that any math problem can be solved in 5 minutes or less, and if they cannot find a solution in that time, they will give up. Many young people and adults also believe that talent in mathematics and science is innate, which gives them little incentive to persist if they do not understand something in these subjects immediately.
Conversely, people who believe they are capable of making sense of unfamiliar things often succeed because they invest more sustained effort in doing so. The authors found that relatively brief interventions can lead to large and sustained gains in student achievement, as students develop durable, transferable intrapersonal skills and apply them to new learning challenges in a positive, self-reinforcing cycle of academic improvement. Research in social psychology shows that if students attribute poor school performance to traits they view as fixed such as general low intelligence or a more specific lack of aptitude in mathematics , they will not invest time and effort to improve their performance.
Wilson and Linville , studied a brief intervention designed to change attributions among college freshmen. They brought two groups of struggling freshmen into the laboratory to view videos of upperclassmen discussing their transition to the college. In the videos viewed by the experimental group, upperclassmen said that their grades were low at first, due to transient factors such as a lack of familiarity with the demands of college, but that their grades improved with time. In the videos viewed by the control group, upperclassmen talked about their academic and social interests but did not mention first-year grades.
One year later, students in the treatment group had earned significantly higher grade point averages 0. Ultimately, students in the treatment group were 80 percent less likely to drop out of college than the control group. In another example, Blackwell, Trzesniewski, and Dweck studied an intervention designed to change attributions among low-income minority seventh-grade students in an urban school. In an 8-week period at the beginning of the school year, the students took part in eight workshops on brain function and study skills.
Students in the experimental group were taught that the brain can get stronger when a person works on challenging tasks, while those in the control group learned only study skills. At the end of the academic year, the students in the experimental group earned significantly higher mathematics grades than those in the control group a mean increase of 0. Noting that the effectiveness of interventions targeting attributions has been replicated with different student populations, Yaeger and Walton observe that these studies support the hypothesis that changes in attributions can lead to a positive, self-reinforcing cycle of improvement.
Students who attribute a low grade to transitory factors, such as a temporary lack of effort, rather than to a lack of general intelligence or mathematics ability, are more. Yaeger and Walton describe an intervention based on self-affirmation theory, which posits that people who reflect on their positive attributes will view negative events as less threatening, experience less stress, and function more effectively than they otherwise would.
Cohen et al. The experimental group wrote about why two or three values were personally important to them, while the control group wrote about values that were not personally important. By the end of the first semester, black students in the experimental group had significantly higher grade point averages than their peers in the control group, reducing the black-white achievement gap by about 40 percent.
These brief interventions appear to work by engaging students as active participants. For example, when students write about values that are important, they are actually generating the self-affirmation intervention. In his book on unified theories of cognition, Newell points out that there are two layers of problem solving—applying a strategy to the problem at hand, and selecting and monitoring that strategy.
Good problem solving, Newell observed, often depends as much on the selection and monitoring of a strategy as on its execution. Experts have strong metacognitive skills Hatano, They monitor their problem solving, question limitations in their knowledge, and avoid simple interpretations of a problem. In the course of learning and problem. This capability for self-regulation and self-instruction enables advanced learners to profit a great deal from work and practice by themselves and in group efforts. Studies of metacognition have shown that people who monitor their own understanding during the learning phase of an experiment show better recall performance when their memories are tested Nelson, Similar metacognitive strategies distinguish stronger from less competent learners.
Strong learners can explain which strategies they used to solve a problem and why, while less competent students monitor their own thinking sporadically and ineffectively and offer incomplete explanations Chi et al. There is ample evidence that metacognition develops over the school years; for example, older children are better than younger ones at planning for tasks they are asked to do Karmiloff-Smith, Metacognitive skills can also be taught. For example, people can learn mental devices that help them stay on task, monitor their own progress, reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, and self-correct errors.
Student beliefs about learning, motivation, and metacognition are all dimensions of the broader construct of self-regulated learning, which focuses on understanding how learners take an active, purposeful role in learning, by setting goals and working to achieve them. In a recent review of the research on self-regulated learning, Wolters observes that, although there are several different models of such learning, the most prominent is that developed by Pintrich and colleagues Pintrich, , In this model, learners engage in four phases of self-regulation, not necessarily in sequential order: forethought or planning setting learning goals ; monitoring keeping track of progress in a learning activity ; regulation using, managing, or changing learning strategies to achieve the learning goals; and reflection generating new knowledge about the learning tasks or oneself as a learner.
As the learner engages in the different phases of self-regulation, he or she may. Comparing these dimensions of self-regulated learning with a list of 21st century skills proposed by Ananiadou and Claro , Wolters found a high degree of conceptual overlap. The 21st century skills of initiation and self-direction were congruent with self-regulated learning, as the ability to set learning goals and manage the pursuit of those goals is a hallmark of a self-regulated learner. The 21st century skill of adaptability, including the ability to respond effectively to feedback, is very similar or identical to what the learner does in the monitoring and reflection phases of self-regulated learning.
Learners who are strong in self-regulated learning are seen as particularly adept at using different forms of feedback to continue and complete learning activities. Earlier in this chapter, we noted that development of expertise requires not only extensive practice but also feedback. Accordingly, development of self-regulated learning skills should aid development of expertise in a domain.
Wolters identified a moderate degree of overlap between self-regulated learning and the interpersonal skills of collaboration and communication.
In addition, self-regulated learners are effective at seeking help from peers or teachers, working in groups, and other aspects of collaboration Newman, Wolters concluded that the conceptual similarities between 21st century skills and dimensions of self-regulated learning lend support to the critical importance of competencies such as self-direction, adaptability, flexibility, and collaboration, and suggested drawing on the self-regulated learning research to improve understanding of the 21st century skills.
The construct of self-regulated learning has been used to design instructional interventions that have improved academic outcomes among diverse populations of students, from early elementary school through college. These interventions have led to improvements in class grades and other measures of achievement in writing, reading, mathematics, and science Wolters, Further research is needed to more clearly define the dimensions of self-regulated learning, the relationship between this construct and 21st century skills, and how development of self-regulated learning influences academic engagement and attainment for diverse groups of students Wolters, Longitudinal research or other research to improve our understanding of.
In addition, research is needed to develop more unified assessments of self-regulated learning. The currently available measures using self-reports, observational, and other methods suffer from shortcomings and are not fully aligned with current views of self-regulated learning.
Self-regulated learning is one facet of the broader skill of self-regulation, which is related to conscientiousness. What an individual uses to overcome internal challenges, such as counterproductive impulses, or external challenges that may arise in different situations requires a set of strategies that, taken together, comprise self-regulation.
Research on self-regulation is growing rapidly, with hundreds of articles and five major edited volumes published since Hoyle and Davisson, Reflecting the breadth of the construct, researchers have studied self-regulation in various life contexts, such as emotion, chronic illness, smoking, exercise, eating, and shopping Wolters, To date, there is no consensus in the research on how to define self-regulation.
In a review of chapters in edited volumes, Hoyle and Davisson found that some provided no definition at all, there was no evidence of a common definition, and the same authors sometimes proposed different definitions in different chapters. Because the different definitions include a large number of behavioral variables, further research is needed to more clearly delimit the construct and to exclude variables that are not a critical element of self-regulation.
In the previous chapter, we summarized research indicating that attention, a dimension of self-regulation, is related to reading and math achievement. Attention is the ability to control impulses and focus on tasks e. Specifically, we noted that attention, measured at school entry, predicts later reading and mathematics achievement in elementary school Duncan et al. In addition, children who are weak in self-regulation, as indicated by persistently high levels of antisocial behavior across the elementary school years, are significantly less likely to graduate from high school and to attend college than children who never had these problems Duncan and Magnuson, Developmental psychologists have developed measures of self-regulation in young children that focus on the ability to delay.
Longitudinal studies have found that measures of this dimension of self-regulation in early childhood predict academic and social competence in adolescence Mischel, Shoda, and Peake, ; Shoda, Mischel, and Peake, Conversely, children who lacked self-regulation in early childhood are more likely at age 18 to be impulsive, to seek danger, to be aggressive, and to be alienated from others Arsenault et al. Given the importance of self-regulation, greater consensus on how to conceptualize this broad construct is needed.
The current disagreement in the literature about how to define the foundations, process, and consequences of self-regulation poses a major barrier to the development of accurate assessments of it Hoyle and Davisson, As we discuss in the following chapter, teaching for deeper learning and transfer begins with a model of student learning, representing the desired outcomes, and includes assessments to measure student progress toward these outcomes.
Agreement on definitions is an essential first step toward teaching and learning of self-regulation. This domain encompasses a broad range of skills and abilities that an individual draws on when interacting with others. We have proposed in Chapter 2 that it includes two skill clusters:. This preliminary taxonomy of the interpersonal domain represents an initial step toward addressing the problem of a lack of clear, agreed-upon definitions of interpersonal skills and processes.
Below, we discuss the role of interpersonal skills in deeper learning, and then return to the definitional problem. Much of what humans learn, beginning informally at birth and continuing in more structured educational and work environments, is acquired through discourse and interactions with others.
For example, development of new knowledge in science, mathematics, and other disciplines is often shaped by collaborative work among peers e. Through such interactions, individuals build communities of practice, test their own. Individuals who are using a naive strategy can learn by observing others who have figured out a more productive one.
The social nature of learning contrasts with many school situations in which students are often required to work independently. Yet the display and modeling of cognitive competence through group participation and social interaction is an important mechanism for the internalizing of knowledge and skill National Research Council, An example of the importance of social context can be found in the work of Ochs, Jacoby, and Gonzales. They studied the activities of a physics laboratory research group whose members included a senior physicist, a postdoctoral researcher, technical staff, and predoctoral students.
In this view, school is just one of the many contexts that can support learning. Several studies have supported the idea that knowledge and skills are developed and applied in communities of practice. For example, some researchers have analyzed the use of mathematical reasoning skills in workplace and other everyday contexts Lave, ; Ochs, Jacoby, and Gonzales, One such study found that workers who packed crates in a warehouse applied sophisticated mathematical reasoning in their heads to make the most efficient use of storage space, even though they may not have been able to solve the same problem expressed as a standard numerical equation Scribner, The rewards and meaning that people derive from becoming deeply involved in a community can provide a strong motive to learn.
Studies of the social context of learning show that, in a responsive social setting, learners observe the criteria that others use to judge competence and can adopt these criteria. Learners then apply these criteria to judge and perfect the adequacy of their own performance. Shared performance promotes a sense of goal orientation as learning becomes attuned to the constraints and resources of the environment. In school, students develop facility in giving and accepting help and stimulation from others. Social contexts for learning make the thinking of the learner apparent to teachers and other students so that it can be examined, questioned, and built on as part of constructive learning.
Although these interventions target intrapersonal skills and attitudes as a way to enhance cognitive learning, they are based on research and theory from social psychology. The interventions are carefully designed to tap into social communities and relationships that are important and meaningful to the targeted audiences. For example, the intervention by Wilson and Linville , used videos of upperclassmen to convey an important message to struggling freshmen because upperclassmen are viewed as trusted sources of information by freshmen. Similarly, we noted that the abilities and beliefs underlying self-regulated learning are developed through social processes and that self-regulated learners are effective at seeking help from peers or teachers, working in groups, and other aspects of collaboration Newman, In Chapter 3 , we observed that children lacking interpersonal skills, as reflected in persistent patterns of antisocial behavior over the elementary school years, are significantly less likely to graduate from high school and to attend college than children who never had these problems Duncan and Magnuson, Clearly, social and interpersonal skills support deeper learning that transfers to new classes and problems, enhancing academic achievement.
Findings from the research reviewed in this chapter have important implications for how to organize teaching and learning to facilitate deeper learning and development of transferable 21st century competencies. Here, we briefly summarize some of the implications, and in Chapter 6 , we discuss in greater detail how to design instruction to support deeper learning. As summarized by a previous NRC committee, research conducted over the past century has National Research Council, , p. If knowledge is to be transferred successfully, practice and feedback need to take a certain form.
Learners must develop an understanding of when under what conditions it is appropriate to apply what they have learned. Recognition plays an important role here. Indeed, one of the major differences between novices and experts is that experts can recognize novel situations as minor variants of situations to which they already know how to apply strong methods. The models children develop to represent a problem mentally, and the fluency with which they can move back and forth among representations, are other important dimensions of transfer that can be enhanced through instruction. This theory posits that learners experience cognitive demands during learning, but their limited processing capacity restricts the amount of cognitive processing they can engage in at any one time.
Extraneous processing does not serve the learning goals and is caused by poor instructional design. Generative processing involves making sense of the material e. Depending on how it is designed, instruction may lead to one of three types of cognitive processing: extraneous overload, essential overload, and generative underuse Mayer, a. An appropriate instructional goal for extraneous overload situations is to reduce extraneous processing thereby freeing up cognitive capacity for essential and generative processing.
An appropriate instructional goal for essential overload situations is to manage essential processing as it cannot be cut because it is essential for the instructional objective. Finally, if instruction creates a situation of generative underuse, the learner does not engage in sufficient generative processing even though cognitive capacity is available. An appropriate instructional goal for generative underuse situations is to foster generative processing. In Chapter 6 , we discuss evidence-based instructional methods for reducing extraneous processing, managing essential processing, and promoting generative processing.
That chapter describes examples of techniques that have been successful in teaching for transfer, including findings from specific educational interventions. Deeper learning occurs when the learner is able to transfer what was learned to new situations. Research on teaching for transfer, which primarily reflects the cognitive perspective on learning, has a long history in psychology and education. This research indicates that learning for transfer requires knowledge that is mentally organized, understanding of the broad principles of the knowledge, and skills for using this knowledge to solve problems.
Other, more recent research indicates that intrapersonal skills and dispositions, such as motivation and self-regulation, support deeper learning and that these valuable skills and dispositions can be taught and learned. He was critical of the workshop arranged by the Department. He indicated that the programme was not rolled out properly, the district officials "were not specialists and the district does not have any capacity". Two principals, D and F attended one professional development training event on the new curriculum referred to as CAPS Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement arranged by the District but were disillusioned by the workshop presented: District officials were unprepared and did not have the necessary knowledge and skills of CAPS and also their presentations ranged from weak to mediocrity".
Principal F suggested that "there should be compulsory training for incumbent principals, for example, the ACE course offered by Higher Education Institutions". Training embraces workshops or direct instruction provided by education specialists and experts from district offices who have thorough understanding of curricula issues. Training can take the form of one-day conferences; single-session activities; short courses over a period of time, formal meetings by subject specialists; and membership of working groups. The creation of local or district networks, to promote mutual learning, is also a distinctive feature of a professional development programme.
Bush, Glover and Harris review of the leadership development literature concludes that networking is the most favoured mode of leadership learning.
Its main advantage is that it is 'live learning' and provides strong potential for ideas transfer. Visiting other schools, particularly those in similar contexts, appears to enhance leadership learning. Brundrett adds that inter-school networks are powerful tools for school development. Three interrelated themes emanating from the study formed the principals' overarching perceptions and experiences of their role as instructional leaders. Since very few principals had a comprehensive understanding of the concept 'instructional leadership' and more specifically their role as instructional leaders, they acknowledged that their core functions included teaching and learning.
Using Hallinger's Model on Instructional Leadership, many of the selected principals set direction for their staff and created a conducive learning environment. Their instructional leadership role includes developing a shared vision, providing appropriate resources, creating a conducive learning environment, undertaking classroom visits, setting high expectations for staff and learners, coaching and mentoring teachers. However, other principals merely devoted most of their time to monitoring and controlling the work of staff and learners. It is expected from the provincial department of education that principals, as instructional leaders, work collaboratively with SMTs and teachers to undertake essential leadership functions such as coordinating the curriculum, supervising instruction, evaluating the academic programme, and monitoring learner progress.
However, most of the principals interviewed preferred to hone their strengths on administrative and management issues. By way of self-reflection, most principals emphasised the importance of attending professional development programmes. This is in keeping with Hallinger's Instructional Leadership Model. Several principals lacked the necessary instructional leadership expertise and skills and found difficulty in developing strategies of coordination and control to align their school's academic mission with strategy and action. Principals realised that they should take the initiative to identify their own professional needs and arrange for reputable service providers to conduct the professional development programmes.
They should not depend on the education district office to conduct workshops or execute 'one-size-fits-all' professional development programmes, Research shows that effective principals are lifelong learners who should engage continuously in professional development opportunities, both inside and outside the organisation. Principals have serious reservations about the role of the education districts in making professional development programmes available to principals.
However, they should not wait for education districts to invite them to participate in professional development programmes, instead they should take the initiative of professionally developing themselves. Although clear directives are provided by the Department of Education pertaining to the principal's curricular functions, the selected principals considered the control of academic matters as one of their primary concerns.
They thus used the distributed style of leadership, delegating most of their instructional responsibilities to deputy principals and HoDs. Those principals who applied the distributive leadership style expect deputy principals and HoDs to ensure that LTSM is procured and effectively managed; guide teachers on assessment policies; monitor the delivery of teaching, and analyse learner performance.
While distributed or participative leadership reduces the workload of principals Sergiovanni, cited in Bush, , it also empowers subordinates to take on leadership positions and facilitate healthy staff relations. However, principals are expected to play a more pronounced role in all aspects of teaching and learning Van Deventer, ; Ibtesam, Conclusion and recommendations. One of the primary reasons for the poor academic standards of learners in South African public schools is the ineffective instructional leadership role of principals.
This study has shown that many principals place more emphasis on their managerial and administrative duties rather than focussing on teaching and learning. Although principals are accountable for the plethora of administrative and managerial tasks, there is a dire need for them to take an active role on instructional leadership role, which is pivotal to enhance learner performance. Principals should be conversant with innovative teaching theories and practices, and encourage teachers to model them in classrooms.
Empirical analyses tend to support the theoretical prediction that poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries. The dominant model of the demand for education is based on human capital theory. In the course of learning and problem. Received 21 February Accepted 3 July For example, learning Latin may help someone learn Spanish solely because some of the vocabulary words are very similar and the verb conjugations are very similar.
The principal has the power to influence learner-learning outcomes by setting the school's goals and promoting effective instructional practices. The core of instructional leadership is to transform schools into conducive environments where teachers and learners reach their full potential. To advance a culture of teaching and learning in schools where learner achievement features strongly, principals are duty-bound to balance their administrative and managerial duties with instructional leadership functions. Although principals could apply a distributive leadership style of school management, they should not abdicate their responsibility of driving the teaching and learning agenda.
The principal may apply the distributive style of leadership by delegating the varied administrative and management duties to subordinates. In this way, they will empower their subordinates to take on leadership positions while they devote more time to instructional matters. Thus, a paradigm shift is required where principals devote more serious attention to instructional leadership. Principals should be empowered to generate new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to manage curricula matters effectively and efficiently. This is achievable through well-constructed professional development programmes.
Professional development activities can be undertaken through the active participation of university faculties, practising principals and prospective principals engaging in study groups, curriculum development, peer observation, and through collaborative school-based research. Principals should be innovative by creating more professional development and training opportunities instead of waiting for the Department to arrange professional development programmes.
These programmes should be custom made rather than having a 'one size fits all' training. Themes could include curriculum planning, effective provision and utilisation of resources, procuring physical assets, teaching and learning support materials, instructional leadership, and learner discipline should form the nucleus of the continuing professional development programme that can be offered to them. Perhaps, it should be made mandatory for newly-appointed principals to take a structured leadership course offered by higher education institutions.
This course should emphasise the role of principals as instructional leaders. For example, as part of their continuing professional development, principals and aspiring school managers should complete the Advanced Certificate in Education ACE - Leadership and Management course offered at different tertiary institutions. This course provides practising as well as aspiring principals with important leadership and management knowledge and skills embracing teaching and learning, managing people, managing school finances and physical resources, and engaging with education law and policy matters.
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No time to fiddle as education is burning. Stop using band-aid solutions in schools. Naptosa Insight.
The book provides a succinct review of the rationale and impact evidence for three key lines of reform: 1 policies that use the power of information to strengthen the ability of students and their parents to hold providers accountable for results; 2 policies that promote schools' autonomy to make key decisions and control resources; and 3 teacher incentives reforms that specifically aim at making teachers more accountable for results. Ver menos -. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study;egra early grade reading assessment;public spending on primary education;political economy of reform;cost of service All language versions and volumes across World Bank Repositories.
The World Bank.